Anne Boykin & Savina Schoenhofer - Nursing As Caring


Anne Boykin and Savina O. Schoenhofer

Nursing As Caring

The theory of Nursing As Caring is a general or grand nursing theory that can be used as a framework to guide nursing practice. The theory is grounded in several key assumptions:

  1. persons are caring by virtue of their humanness
  2. persons live their caring moment to moment
  3. persons are whole or complete in the moment
  4. personhood is living life grounded in caring
  5. personhood is enhanced through participating in nurturing relationships with caring others
  6. nursing is both a discipline and a profession (Boykin & Schoenhofer, 2001, p.11).

The most basic premise of the theory is that all humans are caring persons, that to be human is to be called to live one's innate caring nature. Developing the full potential of expressing caring is an ideal and for practical purposes, is a lifelong process. (Extract taken from: Nursing As Caring - A Brief Overview of The Theory of Nursing As Caring Boykin & Schoenhofer)

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Schoenhofer, S. O., & Boykin, A. (1993). Nursing as caring: An emerging general theory of nursing. In M. E. Parker (Ed.), Patterns of nursing theories in practice (pp. 83-92). New York: National League of Nursing.

Boykin, A. (1994). Living a caring-based program. New York: National League for Nursing.

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Schoenhofer, S. (1994). Transforming visions for nursing in the timeworld of Einstein's Dreams. Advances in Nursing Science, 16(4), 1-8.

Boykin, A., & Winland-Brown, J. (1995). The dark side of caring: Challenges of caregiving. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 21(5), 13-18.

Boykin, A. (1995). Power, politics and public policy: A matter of caring. New York: National League of Nursing.

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Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. (2000). Is there really time to care? Nursing Forum, 35(4), 36-38.

Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. (2001). The role of nursing leadership in creating caring environments in health care delivery systems. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 25(3), 1-7.

Boykin, A., Schoenhofer, S., Smith, N., St. Jean, J., & Aleman, D. (2003). Transforming practice using a caring-based nursing model. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 27(3), 223-230.

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Touhy, T., & Boykin, A. (2008). Caring as the central domain in nursing education. International Journal for Human Caring, 12(2), 8-15.

Dyess, S., Boykin, A., & Rigg, C. (2010). Integrating caring theory with nursing practice and education: connecting with what matters. Journal of Nursing Administration, 40(11), 498-503. doi:10.1097/NNA.0b013e3181f88b96

Pross, E., Boykin, A., Hilton, N., & Gabuat, J. (2010). A study of knowing nurses as caring. Holistic Nursing Practice, 24(3), 142-147. doi:10.1097/HNP.0b013e3181dd47bc

Pross, E., Hilton, N., Boykin, A., & Thomas IV, C. (2011). The “dance of caring persons.” Nursing Management, 42(10), 25-30. doi:10.1097/01.NUMA.0000405223.39798.e1

Boykin, A., Schoenhofer, S., & Valentine, K. (2013). Health care system transformation for nursing and health care leaders: Implementing a culture of caring. New York, NY: Springer.

Dyess, S. M., Boykin, A., & Bulfin, M. J. (2013). Hearing the voice of nurses in caring theory-based practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 26(2), 167-173. doi:10.1177/0894318413477138