Anne Boykin & Savina Schoenhofer - Nursing As Caring

Anne Boykin and Savina O. Schoenhofer

Nursing As Caring

The theory of Nursing As Caring is a general or grand nursing theory that can be used as a framework to guide nursing practice. The theory is grounded in several key assumptions:

  1. persons are caring by virtue of their humanness
  2. persons live their caring moment to moment
  3. persons are whole or complete in the moment
  4. personhood is living life grounded in caring
  5. personhood is enhanced through participating in nurturing relationships with caring others
  6. nursing is both a discipline and a profession (Boykin & Schoenhofer, 2001, p.11).

The most basic premise of the theory is that all humans are caring persons, that to be human is to be called to live one's innate caring nature. Developing the full potential of expressing caring is an ideal and for practical purposes, is a lifelong process. (Extract taken from: Nursing As Caring - A Brief Overview of The Theory of Nursing As Caring Boykin & Schoenhofer)

Schoenhofer, S. O. (1984). Support as legitimate nursing action. Nursing Outlook, 32(4), 218-219.

Schoenhofer, S. O. (1989). Affectional touch in critical care nursing: A descriptive study. Heart & Lung: Journal of Critical Care, 18(2), 146-154.

Schoenhofer, S. (1989). Love, beauty, and truth: Fundamental nursing values. Journal of Nursing Education, 28(8), 382-384.

Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. (1990). Caring in nursing: Analysis of extant theory. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3(4), 149-155.

Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. O. (1993). Nursing as caring: A model for transforming practice. New York: National League of Nursing Publications.

Schoenhofer, S. O., & Boykin, A. (1993). Nursing as caring: An emerging general theory of nursing. In M. E. Parker (Ed.), Patterns of nursing theories in practice (pp. 83-92). New York: National League of Nursing.

Boykin, A. (1994). Living a caring-based program. New York: National League for Nursing.

Gaut, D. A.,& Boykin, A. (1994). Caring as healing: Renewal through hope. New York: National League of Nursing.

Schoenhofer, S. (1994). Transforming visions for nursing in the timeworld of Einstein's Dreams. Advances in Nursing Science, 16(4), 1-8.

Boykin, A., & Winland-Brown, J. (1995). The dark side of caring: Challenges of caregiving. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 21(5), 13-18.

Boykin, A. (1995). Power, politics and public policy: A matter of caring. New York: National League of Nursing.

Schoenhofer, S. O., & Boykin, A. (1998). Discovering the value of nursing in high-technology environments: Outcomes revisited. Holistic Nursing Practice, 12(4), 31-39.

McCance, T. V., McKenna, H. P., & Boore, J. R. P. (1999). Caring: Theoretical perspectives of relevance to nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30(6), 1388-1395.

Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. (2000). Is there really time to care? Nursing Forum, 35(4), 36-38.

Boykin, A., & Schoenhofer, S. (2001). The role of nursing leadership in creating caring environments in health care delivery systems. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 25(3), 1-7.

Bulfin, S., & Mitchell, G. J. (2005). Nursing as caring theory: Living care in practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 18(4), 313-319.