Faye Glenn Abdellah 1919-
Twenty-One Nursing Problems
"Although Abdellah spoke of the patient-centered approaches, she wrote of nurses identifying and solving specific problems. This identification and classification of problems was called the typology of 21 nursing problems. Abdellah's typology was divided into three areas: (1) the physical, sociological, and emotional needs of the patient; (2) the types of interpersonal relationships between the nurse and the patient; and (3) the common elements of patient care. Adbellah and her colleagues thought the typology would provide a method to evaluate a student's experiences and also a method to evaluate a nurse's competency based on outcome measures." (Tomey & Alligood, Nursing theorists and their work 4th ed., p. 115).
Abdellah's Typology of 21 Nursing Problems:
- To promote good hygiene and physical comfort
- To promote optimal activity, exercise, rest, and sleep
- To promote safety through prevention of accidents, injury, or other trauma and through the prevention of the spread of infection
- To maintain good body mechanics and prevent and correct deformities
- To facilitate the maintenance of a supply of oxygen to all body cells
- To facilitate the maintenance of nutrition of all body cells
- To facilitate the maintenance of elimination
- To facilitate the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance
- To recognize the physiologic responses of the body to disease conditions
- To facilitate the maintenance of regulatory mechanisms and functions
- To facilitate the maintenance of sensory function
- To identify and accept positive and negative expressions, feelings, and reactions
- To identify and accept the interrelatedness of emotions and organic illness
- To facilitate the maintenance of effective verbal and nonverbal communication
- To promote the development of productive interpersonal relationships
- To facilitate progress toward achievement of personal spiritual goals
- To create and maintain a therapeutic environment
- To facilitate awareness of self as an individual with varying physical, emotional, and developmental needs
- To accept the optimum possible goals in light of physical and emotional limitations
- To use community resources as an aid in resolving problems arising from illness
- To understand the role of social problems as influencing factors in the cause of illness
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Halterman, T. D., Dycus, D. K., McClure, E. A., Schmeiser, D. N., Taggart, F. M., & Yancey, R. (1998). Faye Glenn Abdellah: Twenty-One Nursing Problems. In A. M. Tomey & M. R. Alligood (Eds.), Nursing theorists and their work (4th ed., pp. 112-131). St. Louis: Mosby.