Myra Estrin Levine - Conservation Model


Myra Estrin Levine 1920-1996

Conservation Model

"Levine's model focuses on individuals as holistic beings, and the major area of concern for nurses in maintenance of a person's wholeness." Polit & Henderson p. 10. Defined nursing as supportive & therapeutic interventions based on scientific or therapeutic knowledge. Nursing actions based on four principles: conservation of energy, structural integrity, personal integrity, & social integrity.

Levine, M. E. (1966). Adaptation and assessment: A rationale for nursing intervention. American Journal of Nursing, 66(11), 2450-2453.

Levine, M. E. (1967). The four conservation principles of nursing. Nursing Forum, 6(1), 45-49.

Levine, M. E. (1967). This I believe: About patient centered care. Nursing Outlook, 15(4), 53-55.

Levine, M. E. (1969). Introduction to clinical nursing. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.

Levine, M. E. (1969). The pursuit of wholeness. American Journal of Nursing, 69(1), 93-98.

Levine, M. E. (1970). The intransigent patient. American Journal of Nursing, 70(10), 2106-2111.

Levine, M. E. (1971). Holistic nursing. Nursing Clinics of North America, 6(2), 253-264.

Levine, M. E. (1971). Renewal for nursing. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.

Levine, M. E. (1973). Introduction to clinical nursing (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.

Taylor, J. W. (1974). Measuring the outcomes of nursing care. Nursing Clinics of North America, 9, 337-348.

Levine, M. E. (1977). Nursing ethics and the ethical nurse. American Journal of Nursing, 77(5), 845.849.

Leven, M. E. (1978). Cancer chemotherapy: A nursing model. Nursing Clinics of North America, 13(2), 271-280.

Walker, L. O., & Nicholson, R. (1980). Criteria for evaluating nursing process models. Nurse Educator, 5(5), 8-9.

Levine, M. E. (1989). The conservation model: Twenty years later. In J. P. Riehl-Sisca (Ed.), Conceptual models for nursing practice (pp. 325-337). Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Lange.

Leonard, M. K. (1990). Myra Estrin Levine. In J. B. George (Ed.), Nursing theories: The base for professional nursing practice (pp. 181-192). Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall.

Levine, M. E. (1990). Conservation and integrity. In M. E. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories in practice (pp.189-201). New York: National League for Nursing.

Pond, J. B. (1990). Application of Levine's conservation model to nursing the homeless community. In M. E. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories in practice (pp. 203-215). New York: National League for Nursing.

Schaefer, K. M. (1990). A description of fatigue associated with congestive heart failure: Use of Levine's Conservation Model. In M. E. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories in practice (pp. 217-237). New York: National League for Nursing.

Schaefer, K. M., & Pond, J. B. (Eds.). (1991). Levine's conservation model: A framework for nursing practice. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.

Schaefer, K. M. (1996). Levine's conservation model: Caring for women with chronic illness. In P. H. Walker & B. M. Neuman (Eds.), Blueprint for use of nursing models: Education, research, practice, and administration (pp. 187-227). New York: National League for Nursing.

Schaefer, K. M., Artigue, G. S., Foli, K. J., Johnson, T., Tomey, A. M., Poat, M.C., & et al. (1998). Myra Estrin Levine: The Conservation Model. In A. M. Tomey & M. R. Alligood (Eds.), Nursing theorists and their work (4th ed., pp. 95-106). St. Louis: Mosby.

Schaefer, K. M. (2002). Levine's conservation model in nursing practice. In M. R. Alligood & A. M. Tomey (Eds.), Nursing theory utilization & application (2nd ed., pp. 197-217). St. Louis: Mosby.

Mefford, L. C. (2004). A theory of health promotion for preterm infants bases on Levine's Conservation Model of Nursing. Nursing Science Quarterly, 17(3), 260-266.

Levine. M. (2006). The conservation model [DVD]. In The nurse theorists: Portraits of excellence. Athens, OH: Fitne.