Nancy Roper, Winifred W. Logan & Alison J. Tierney
The Elements of Nursing: A Model for Nursing Based on a Model of Living
This model incorporates a life span approach, wherein the characteristics of the person are considered with respect to prior development, current level of development, and likely future development (Safarino, 1990). In conjunction with the life span approach an independence/dependence continuum is used. The model then incorporates a set of twelve activities of living (AL's), which represent those activities engaged in by individuals whether sick or well. Together these elements are referred to as "a model of living". When using the model of living in conjunction with the nursing process a model of nursing is utilised. The AL's are as follows:
- Maintaining a safe environment
- Eating and drinking
- Personal cleansing and dressing
- Maintaining body temperature
- Working and playing
- Expressing sexuality
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Roper, N., Logan, W., & Tierney, A. (1983, May 25). A nursing model...why the nursing process is useful, when used in an explicit nursing framework. Nursing Mirror, 156(21), 17-19.
Roper, N., Logan, W., & Tierney, A. (1983, June 1). Is there a danger of "processing" patients? Nursing Mirror, 156(22), 32-33.
Roper, N., Logan, W., & Tierney, A. (1983, June 8). Problems or needs?...the nursing process. Nursing Mirror, 156(23), 43-44.
Roper, N., Logan, W., & Tierney, A., (1983, June 15). Identifying the goals...the importance of assessment and evaluation in the nursing process. Nursing Mirror, 156(24), 22-23.
Roper, N., Logan, W., & Tierney, A. (1983, June 22). Endless paperwork?...the nursing process. Nursing Mirror, 156(25), 34-35.
Roper, N. Logan, W., & Tierney, A. (1983, June 29). Unity-with diversity...use of the nursing process. Nursing Mirror, 156(26), 35.
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